The Institute of Creative Technologies defines cognitive architecture as: “hypothesis about the fixed structures that provide a mind, whether in natural or artificial systems, and how they work together – in conjunction with knowledge and skills embodied within the architecture – to yield intelligent behavior in a diversity of complex environments.” 33. 23 Postmodernism produced a style that combined contemporary building technology and cheap materials, with the aesthetics of older pre-modern and non-modern styles, from high classical architecture to popular or vernacular regional building styles. One such reaction to the cold aesthetic of modernism and Brutalism is the school of metaphoric architecture , which includes such things as biomorphism and zoomorphic architecture , both using nature as the primary source of inspiration and design.

But an even new younger postwar generation critiqued modernism and Brutalism for being too austere, standardized, monotone, and not taking into account the richness of human experience offered in historical buildings across time and in different places and cultures. As the first generation of modernists began to die after World War II , a second generation of architects including Paul Rudolph , Marcel Breuer , and Eero Saarinen tried to expand the aesthetics of modernism with Brutalism , buildings with expressive sculptural façades made of unfinished concrete. Architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright developed organic architecture , in which the form was defined by its environment and purpose, with an aim to promote harmony between human habitation and the natural world with prime examples being Robie House and Fallingwater.

The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references and ornament in favor of functionalist details. House builders could use current architectural design in their work by combining features found in pattern books and architectural journals. With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of building design.

Buildings were ascribed to specific architects – Brunelleschi , Alberti , Michelangelo , Palladio – and the cult of the individual had begun. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism , empiricism , structuralism , poststructuralism , and phenomenology. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction , the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: “You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction.

The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari : 11 by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish, and English. The design activity of the architect, 4 from the macro-level ( urban design , landscape architecture ) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). The design of a building as embodied in any tangible medium of expression, including a building, architectural plans, or drawings.

FAT Architecture is an award winning practice with an international reputation for delivering outstanding projects at a range of scales and for many different uses. The firm’s experience in creating sophisticated, timeless architecture has earned them the respect from peers and more importantly from our clients. The designs are quiet, yet strong creating a response that is appropriate to its surroundings with attention to materiality that ensures projects will continue to improve over the passage of time.

Pritzker Architecture Prize – awarded annually to “a living architect whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture”. Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) – an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977, awarded for achievements in design and planning in Islamic societies. Architecture prize – Architecture prizes are generally awarded for completed projects and are chosen from publicised or nominated works, 6 not from submissions by the originating architect.

Project management – the process of managing all the activities involved in a construction project, including adherence to the design and local legislation, costs and payment, and verification of project completion. Cost accounting or cost management – a vital activity in connection with building, generally performed by a specialist quantity surveyor Construction projects are notoriously subject to cost overruns , caused by changing circumstances or by failure to fully allow for foreseeable costs during budgeting. Brief (architecture) – a written statement of a client’s requirements for a building project.

It is a component of architecture and building engineering and is sometimes viewed as a distinct discipline or sub-category. Architectural drawing or architect’s drawing – a technical drawing of a building or building project. Bachelor of Architecture (.) – undergraduate academic degree designed to satisfy the academic component of professional accreditation bodies, to be followed by a period of practical training prior to professional examination and registration.

Although not all buildings are architecture, the term encompasses a huge range of building types, as summarised in the following list pages: Victorian architecture – includes several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. Neoclassical architecture – an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement which began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.

Baroque architecture – the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. Classical architecture – architecture derived in part from the Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, enriched by classicizing architectural practice in Europe since the Renaissance.

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